Differences in clinical presentation, response to treatment, and long-term outcomes between autoantibody-positive and -negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) highlight the need for a better comprehension of the immunopathogenic events underlying the two disease subtypes. Whilst the drivers and perpetuators of autoimmunity in autoantibody-positive RA have started to be disclosed, autoantibody-negative RA remains puzzling, also due its wide phenotypic heterogeneity and its possible misdiagnosis. Genetic susceptibility appears to mostly rely on class I HLA genes and a number of yet unidentified non-HLA loci. On the background of such variable genetic predisposition, multiple exogeneous, endogenous, and stochastic factors, some of which are not shared with autoantibody-positive RA, contribute to the onset of the inflammatory cascade. In a proportion of the patients, the immunopathology of synovitis, at least in the initial stages, appears largely myeloid driven, with abundant production of proinflammatory cytokines and only minor involvement of cells of the adaptive immune system. Better understanding of the complexity of autoantibody-negative RA is still needed in order to open new avenues for targeted intervention and improve clinical outcomes.

The Genetic, Environmental, and Immunopathological Complexity of Autoantibody-Negative Rheumatoid Arthritis

De Stefano, Ludovico;D'Onofrio, Bernardo;Manzo, Antonio;Montecucco, Carlomaurizio;Bugatti, Serena
2021-01-01

Abstract

Differences in clinical presentation, response to treatment, and long-term outcomes between autoantibody-positive and -negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) highlight the need for a better comprehension of the immunopathogenic events underlying the two disease subtypes. Whilst the drivers and perpetuators of autoimmunity in autoantibody-positive RA have started to be disclosed, autoantibody-negative RA remains puzzling, also due its wide phenotypic heterogeneity and its possible misdiagnosis. Genetic susceptibility appears to mostly rely on class I HLA genes and a number of yet unidentified non-HLA loci. On the background of such variable genetic predisposition, multiple exogeneous, endogenous, and stochastic factors, some of which are not shared with autoantibody-positive RA, contribute to the onset of the inflammatory cascade. In a proportion of the patients, the immunopathology of synovitis, at least in the initial stages, appears largely myeloid driven, with abundant production of proinflammatory cytokines and only minor involvement of cells of the adaptive immune system. Better understanding of the complexity of autoantibody-negative RA is still needed in order to open new avenues for targeted intervention and improve clinical outcomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1478503
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