We review the construction of ground states focusing on a real scalar field whose dynamics is ruled by the Klein-Gordon equation on a large class of static spacetimes. As in the analysis of the classical equations of motion, when enough isometries are present, via a mode expansion the construction of two-point correlation functions boils down to solving a second order, ordinary differential equation on an interval of the real line. Using the language of Sturm-Liouville theory, most compelling is the scenario when one endpoint of such interval is classified as a limit circle, as it often happens when one is working on globally hyperbolic spacetimes with a timelike boundary. In this case, beyond initial data, one needs to specify a boundary condition both to have a well-defined classical dynamics and to select a corresponding ground state. Here, we take into account boundary conditions of Robin type by using wellknown results from Sturm-Liouville theory, but we go beyond the existing literature by exploring an unnoticed freedom that emerges from the intrinsic arbitrariness of secondary solutions at a limit circle endpoint. Accordingly, we show that infinitely many one-parameter families of sensible dynamics are admissible. In other words, we emphasize that physical constraints guaranteeing the construction of ground states do not, in general, fix one such state unambiguously. In addition, we provide, in full detail, an example on (1 + 1)-half Minkowski spacetime to spell out the rationale in a specific scenario where analytic formulae can be obtained.

Hidden freedom in the mode expansion on static spacetimes

Claudio Dappiaggi;Luca Sinibaldi
2023-01-01

Abstract

We review the construction of ground states focusing on a real scalar field whose dynamics is ruled by the Klein-Gordon equation on a large class of static spacetimes. As in the analysis of the classical equations of motion, when enough isometries are present, via a mode expansion the construction of two-point correlation functions boils down to solving a second order, ordinary differential equation on an interval of the real line. Using the language of Sturm-Liouville theory, most compelling is the scenario when one endpoint of such interval is classified as a limit circle, as it often happens when one is working on globally hyperbolic spacetimes with a timelike boundary. In this case, beyond initial data, one needs to specify a boundary condition both to have a well-defined classical dynamics and to select a corresponding ground state. Here, we take into account boundary conditions of Robin type by using wellknown results from Sturm-Liouville theory, but we go beyond the existing literature by exploring an unnoticed freedom that emerges from the intrinsic arbitrariness of secondary solutions at a limit circle endpoint. Accordingly, we show that infinitely many one-parameter families of sensible dynamics are admissible. In other words, we emphasize that physical constraints guaranteeing the construction of ground states do not, in general, fix one such state unambiguously. In addition, we provide, in full detail, an example on (1 + 1)-half Minkowski spacetime to spell out the rationale in a specific scenario where analytic formulae can be obtained.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1479460
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