: Layered Structures of Metal Ionic Polymers, or Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) are formed by a membrane of an ionic electroactive materials flanked by two metal electrodes on both surfaces; they are devices able to change their shape upon application of an electrical external stimulus. This class of materials is used in various fields such as biomedicine, soft robotics, and sensor technology because of their favorable properties (light weight, biocompatibility, fast response to stimulus and good flexibility). With additive manufacturing, actuators can be customized and tailored to specific applications, allowing for the optimization of performance, size, and weight, thus reducing costs and time of fabrication and enhancing functionality and efficiency in various applications. In this review, we present an overview of the newest trend in using different 3D printing techniques to produce electrically responsive IPMC devices.
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