Protein functions are dynamically regulated by allostery, which enables conformational communication even between faraway residues, and expresses itself in many forms, akin to different “languages”: allosteric control pathways predominating in an unperturbed protein are often unintuitively reshaped whenever biochemical perturbations arise (e.g., mutations). To accurately model allostery, unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations require integration with a reliable method able to, e.g., detect incipient allosteric changes or likely perturbation pathways; this is because allostery can operate at longer time scales than those accessible by plain MD. Such methods are typically applied singularly, but we here argue their joint application─as a “multilingual” approach─could work significantly better. We successfully prove this through unbiased MD simulations (∼100 μs) of the widely studied, allosterically active oncotarget K-Ras4B, solvated and embedded in a phospholipid membrane, from which we decrypt allostery using four showcase “languages”: Distance Fluctuation analysis and the Shortest Path Map capture allosteric hotspots at equilibrium; Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion and Dynamical Non-Equilibrium MD simulations assess perturbations upon, respectively, either superheating or hydrolyzing the GTP that oncogenically activates K-Ras4B. Chosen “languages” work synergistically, providing an articulate, mutually coherent, experimentally consistent picture of K-Ras4B allostery, whereby distinct traits emerge at equilibrium and upon GTP cleavage. At equilibrium, combined evidence confirms prominent allosteric communication from the membrane-embedded hypervariable region, through a hub comprising helix α5 and sheet β5, and up to the active site, encompassing allosteric “switches” I and II (marginally), and two proposed pockets. Upon GTP cleavage, allosteric perturbations mostly accumulate on the switches and documented interfaces.

Decrypting Allostery in Membrane-Bound K-Ras4B Using Complementary In Silico Approaches Based on Unbiased Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Matteo Castelli;Filippo Marchetti;Stefano A. Serapian
;
Giorgio Colombo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Protein functions are dynamically regulated by allostery, which enables conformational communication even between faraway residues, and expresses itself in many forms, akin to different “languages”: allosteric control pathways predominating in an unperturbed protein are often unintuitively reshaped whenever biochemical perturbations arise (e.g., mutations). To accurately model allostery, unbiased molecular dynamics (MD) simulations require integration with a reliable method able to, e.g., detect incipient allosteric changes or likely perturbation pathways; this is because allostery can operate at longer time scales than those accessible by plain MD. Such methods are typically applied singularly, but we here argue their joint application─as a “multilingual” approach─could work significantly better. We successfully prove this through unbiased MD simulations (∼100 μs) of the widely studied, allosterically active oncotarget K-Ras4B, solvated and embedded in a phospholipid membrane, from which we decrypt allostery using four showcase “languages”: Distance Fluctuation analysis and the Shortest Path Map capture allosteric hotspots at equilibrium; Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion and Dynamical Non-Equilibrium MD simulations assess perturbations upon, respectively, either superheating or hydrolyzing the GTP that oncogenically activates K-Ras4B. Chosen “languages” work synergistically, providing an articulate, mutually coherent, experimentally consistent picture of K-Ras4B allostery, whereby distinct traits emerge at equilibrium and upon GTP cleavage. At equilibrium, combined evidence confirms prominent allosteric communication from the membrane-embedded hypervariable region, through a hub comprising helix α5 and sheet β5, and up to the active site, encompassing allosteric “switches” I and II (marginally), and two proposed pockets. Upon GTP cleavage, allosteric perturbations mostly accumulate on the switches and documented interfaces.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1487469
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