Objectives: We used publicly available population data from 1 January 2019 up to 31 December 2022, to investigate mortality trends in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating changes in life expectancy (LE) at birth within provinces and the impact of COVID-19 vaccinations.Study design: Aggregate data analysis.Methods: Annual period life tables were used to estimate sex-specific LEs within provinces from 2019 to 2022. We used Arriaga decomposition to analyze the contribution of age groups (<60 years and >= 60 years) to annual LE changes. We implemented a Quasi-Poisson regression model to estimate the number of averted deaths by the achieved COVID-19 vaccination rates from January 2021 up to December 2022, simulating a counterfactual scenario where vaccine doses were not administered.Results: The results revealed geographical heterogeneity in annual LE changes across Italian provinces during the pandemic. By the end of 2022, LE was below the prepandemic levels in 88% of provinces for females and in 76% for males. In addition, we estimated that the achieved vaccination rates averted 460,831 deaths (95% confidence interval: 250,976-707,920), corresponding to a 25% reduction in expected all-cause mortality.Conclusions: Overall, the study highlighted the significant role of COVID-19 vaccinations in averting a considerable number of deaths and improving LE. However, by the end of 2022, LE had not fully recovered to prepandemic levels in many provinces. This could be attributed to concurrent factors, including enduring COVID-19 pandemic effects, intense summer heat waves and early onset of seasonal flu. Further research and continuous monitoring are essential to fully comprehend long-term mortality trends and optimize public health strategies.(c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Royal Society for Public Health. This isan open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Investigating mortality trends in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic: life expectancy changes within provinces and vaccination campaign impact up to December 2022

Fazia, T;Bernardinelli, L
2023-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: We used publicly available population data from 1 January 2019 up to 31 December 2022, to investigate mortality trends in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating changes in life expectancy (LE) at birth within provinces and the impact of COVID-19 vaccinations.Study design: Aggregate data analysis.Methods: Annual period life tables were used to estimate sex-specific LEs within provinces from 2019 to 2022. We used Arriaga decomposition to analyze the contribution of age groups (<60 years and >= 60 years) to annual LE changes. We implemented a Quasi-Poisson regression model to estimate the number of averted deaths by the achieved COVID-19 vaccination rates from January 2021 up to December 2022, simulating a counterfactual scenario where vaccine doses were not administered.Results: The results revealed geographical heterogeneity in annual LE changes across Italian provinces during the pandemic. By the end of 2022, LE was below the prepandemic levels in 88% of provinces for females and in 76% for males. In addition, we estimated that the achieved vaccination rates averted 460,831 deaths (95% confidence interval: 250,976-707,920), corresponding to a 25% reduction in expected all-cause mortality.Conclusions: Overall, the study highlighted the significant role of COVID-19 vaccinations in averting a considerable number of deaths and improving LE. However, by the end of 2022, LE had not fully recovered to prepandemic levels in many provinces. This could be attributed to concurrent factors, including enduring COVID-19 pandemic effects, intense summer heat waves and early onset of seasonal flu. Further research and continuous monitoring are essential to fully comprehend long-term mortality trends and optimize public health strategies.(c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Royal Society for Public Health. This isan open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1488356
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