Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a broad class of illicit drugs that are classified according to the chemical structure of the aromatic core that they present (i.e., indole, imidazole, pyrrole) and their detection is still a challenge, despite their widespread diffusion. The identification of a specific class of SC in complex matrices, such as real samples with a rapid, economic analytical device useable directly in the field, is highly desirable, as it can provide immediate and reliable information that eventually addresses more targeted analyses. Results: The present paper proposes a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-based voltammetric sensor for the rapid and selective detection of indazole-type SCs. In this context, a polyacrylate-based MIP was used to functionalize a Pt electrode. The MIP composition was optimized through a Design of Experiments approach, and for the sake of safety, a non-psychotropic compound structurally related to the selected SCs was employed as the template in the MIP formulation. A complete characterization of the electrochemical behavior of the selected SCs was performed, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in acetonitrile/lithium perchlorate 0.1 M was the technique applied for their quantification. LOD around 0.01 mM and linearity up to 0.8 mM were found. Comparison with the non-imprinted (NIP) modified and bare electrodes showed better selectivity and reproducibility of the MIP-based sensor. Recovery tests (in the 70-115 % range) were performed on simulated pills and smoking mixtures to test the reliability of the proposed method. Significance: The method proposed allows the identification and quantification of indazole-based SCs as a class in complex matrices. Due to the selectivity of the obtained device, no clean-up of the sample before analyses is needed. For the same reason, the interference of cutting substances and natural cannabinoids was negligible.

Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-based voltammetric sensor for amino acids/indazole derivatives synthetic cannabinoids detection

Merli, Daniele;Lio, Erika;Protti, Stefano;Profumo, Antonella;Alberti, Giancarla
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a broad class of illicit drugs that are classified according to the chemical structure of the aromatic core that they present (i.e., indole, imidazole, pyrrole) and their detection is still a challenge, despite their widespread diffusion. The identification of a specific class of SC in complex matrices, such as real samples with a rapid, economic analytical device useable directly in the field, is highly desirable, as it can provide immediate and reliable information that eventually addresses more targeted analyses. Results: The present paper proposes a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-based voltammetric sensor for the rapid and selective detection of indazole-type SCs. In this context, a polyacrylate-based MIP was used to functionalize a Pt electrode. The MIP composition was optimized through a Design of Experiments approach, and for the sake of safety, a non-psychotropic compound structurally related to the selected SCs was employed as the template in the MIP formulation. A complete characterization of the electrochemical behavior of the selected SCs was performed, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in acetonitrile/lithium perchlorate 0.1 M was the technique applied for their quantification. LOD around 0.01 mM and linearity up to 0.8 mM were found. Comparison with the non-imprinted (NIP) modified and bare electrodes showed better selectivity and reproducibility of the MIP-based sensor. Recovery tests (in the 70-115 % range) were performed on simulated pills and smoking mixtures to test the reliability of the proposed method. Significance: The method proposed allows the identification and quantification of indazole-based SCs as a class in complex matrices. Due to the selectivity of the obtained device, no clean-up of the sample before analyses is needed. For the same reason, the interference of cutting substances and natural cannabinoids was negligible.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1490000
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact