In this work, four different active encapsulation methods, microfluidic (MF), sonication (SC), freeze–thawing (FT), and electroporation (EP), were investigated to load a model protein (bovine serum albumin—BSA) into neutral liposomes made from 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC):cholesterol (Chol) and charged liposomes made from DSPC:Chol:Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), DSPC:Chol:1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS), and DSPC:Chol:phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The aim was to increase the protein encapsulation efficiency (EE%) by keeping the liposome size below 200 nm and the PDI value below 0.7, which warrants a nearly monodisperse preparation. Electroporation (100 V) yielded the best results in terms of EE%, with a dramatic increase in liposome size (>600 nm). The FT active-loading method, either applied to neutral or charged liposomes, allowed for obtaining suitable EE%, keeping the liposome size range below 200 nm with a suitable PDI index. Cationic liposomes (DSPC:Chol:DOTAP) loaded with the FT active method showed the best results in terms of EE% (7.2 0.8%) and size (131.2 +- 11.4 nm, 0.140 PDI). In vitro release of BSA from AM neutral and charged liposomes resulted slower compared to PM liposomes and was affected by incubation temperature (37 °C, 4 °C). The empty charged liposomes tested for cell viability on Human Normal Dermal Fibroblast (HNDF) confirmed their cytocompatibility also at high concentrations (1010 particles/mL) and cellular uptake at 4 °C and 37 °C. It can be concluded that even if both microfluidic passive and active methods are more easily transferable to an industrial scale, the FT active-loading method turned out to be the best in terms of BSA encapsulation efficiencies, keeping liposome size below 200 nm.

Investigation and Comparison of Active and Passive Encapsulation Methods for Loading Proteins into Liposomes

Silvia Pisani;Deborah Di Martino;Silvia Cerri;Ida Genta;Rossella Dorati;Marco Benazzo;Bice Conti
2023-01-01

Abstract

In this work, four different active encapsulation methods, microfluidic (MF), sonication (SC), freeze–thawing (FT), and electroporation (EP), were investigated to load a model protein (bovine serum albumin—BSA) into neutral liposomes made from 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC):cholesterol (Chol) and charged liposomes made from DSPC:Chol:Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), DSPC:Chol:1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS), and DSPC:Chol:phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The aim was to increase the protein encapsulation efficiency (EE%) by keeping the liposome size below 200 nm and the PDI value below 0.7, which warrants a nearly monodisperse preparation. Electroporation (100 V) yielded the best results in terms of EE%, with a dramatic increase in liposome size (>600 nm). The FT active-loading method, either applied to neutral or charged liposomes, allowed for obtaining suitable EE%, keeping the liposome size range below 200 nm with a suitable PDI index. Cationic liposomes (DSPC:Chol:DOTAP) loaded with the FT active method showed the best results in terms of EE% (7.2 0.8%) and size (131.2 +- 11.4 nm, 0.140 PDI). In vitro release of BSA from AM neutral and charged liposomes resulted slower compared to PM liposomes and was affected by incubation temperature (37 °C, 4 °C). The empty charged liposomes tested for cell viability on Human Normal Dermal Fibroblast (HNDF) confirmed their cytocompatibility also at high concentrations (1010 particles/mL) and cellular uptake at 4 °C and 37 °C. It can be concluded that even if both microfluidic passive and active methods are more easily transferable to an industrial scale, the FT active-loading method turned out to be the best in terms of BSA encapsulation efficiencies, keeping liposome size below 200 nm.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1492217
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