The term “ketogenic diet” (KD) is used for a wide variety of diets with diverse indications ranging from obesity to neurological diseases, as if it was the same diet. This terminology is confusing for patients and the medical and scientific community. The term “ketogenic” diet implies a dietary regimen characterized by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies that should be measured in blood (beta-hydroxybutyrate), urine (acetoacetate) or breath (acetone) to verify the “ketogenic metabolic condition”. Our viewpoint highlights that KDs used for epilepsy and obesity are not the same; the protocols aimed at weight loss characterized by low-fat, low-CHO and moderate/high protein content are not ketogenic by themselves but may become mildly ketogenic when high calorie restriction is applied. In contrast, there are standardized protocols for neurological diseases treatment for which ketosis has been established to be part of the mechanism of action. Therefore, in our opinion, the term ketogenic dietary therapy (KDT) should be reserved to the protocols considered for epilepsy and other neurological diseases, as suggested by the International Study Group in 2018. We propose to adjust the abbreviations in VLCHKD for Very Low CarboHydrate Ketogenic Diet and VLEKD for Very Low Energy Ketogenic Diet, to clarify the differences in dietary composition. We recommend that investigators describe the researchers describing efficacy or side effects of KDs, to clearly specify the dietary protocol used with its unique acronym and level of ketosis, when ketosis is considered as a component of the diet's mechanism of action.

Ketogenic diet for epilepsy and obesity: Is it the same?

Tagliabue A.;Guglielmetti M.
;
Ferraris C.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

The term “ketogenic diet” (KD) is used for a wide variety of diets with diverse indications ranging from obesity to neurological diseases, as if it was the same diet. This terminology is confusing for patients and the medical and scientific community. The term “ketogenic” diet implies a dietary regimen characterized by increased levels of circulating ketone bodies that should be measured in blood (beta-hydroxybutyrate), urine (acetoacetate) or breath (acetone) to verify the “ketogenic metabolic condition”. Our viewpoint highlights that KDs used for epilepsy and obesity are not the same; the protocols aimed at weight loss characterized by low-fat, low-CHO and moderate/high protein content are not ketogenic by themselves but may become mildly ketogenic when high calorie restriction is applied. In contrast, there are standardized protocols for neurological diseases treatment for which ketosis has been established to be part of the mechanism of action. Therefore, in our opinion, the term ketogenic dietary therapy (KDT) should be reserved to the protocols considered for epilepsy and other neurological diseases, as suggested by the International Study Group in 2018. We propose to adjust the abbreviations in VLCHKD for Very Low CarboHydrate Ketogenic Diet and VLEKD for Very Low Energy Ketogenic Diet, to clarify the differences in dietary composition. We recommend that investigators describe the researchers describing efficacy or side effects of KDs, to clearly specify the dietary protocol used with its unique acronym and level of ketosis, when ketosis is considered as a component of the diet's mechanism of action.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1492417
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