Adaptive coding of stimuli is well documented in perception, where it supports efficient encoding over a broad range of possible percepts. Recently, a similar neural mechanism has been reported also in value-based decision, where it allows optimal encoding of vast ranges of values in PFC: neuronal response to value depends on the choice context (relative coding), rather than being invariant across contexts (absolute coding). Additionally, value learning is sensitive to the amount of feedback information: providing complete feedback (both obtained and forgone outcomes) instead of partial feedback (only obtained outcome) improves learning. However, it is unclear whether relative coding occurs in all PFC regions and how it is affected by feedback information. We systematically investigated univariate and multivariate feedback encoding in various mPFC regions and compared three modes of neural coding: absolute, partially-adaptive and fully-adaptive. Twenty-eight human participants (both sexes) performed a learning task while undergoing fMRI scanning. On each trial, they chose between two symbols associated with a certain outcome. Then, the decision outcome was revealed. Notably, in one-half of the trials participants received partial feedback, whereas in the other half they got complete feedback. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to explore value encoding in different feedback conditions. We found that both obtained and forgone outcomes were encoded in mPFC, but with opposite sign in its ventral and dorsal subdivisions. Moreover, we showed that increasing feedback information induced a switch from absolute to relative coding. Our results suggest that complete feedback information enhances context-dependent outcome encoding.

The effect of counterfactual information on outcome value coding in medial prefrontal and cingulate cortex: From an absolute to a relative neural code

Pischedda D.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Adaptive coding of stimuli is well documented in perception, where it supports efficient encoding over a broad range of possible percepts. Recently, a similar neural mechanism has been reported also in value-based decision, where it allows optimal encoding of vast ranges of values in PFC: neuronal response to value depends on the choice context (relative coding), rather than being invariant across contexts (absolute coding). Additionally, value learning is sensitive to the amount of feedback information: providing complete feedback (both obtained and forgone outcomes) instead of partial feedback (only obtained outcome) improves learning. However, it is unclear whether relative coding occurs in all PFC regions and how it is affected by feedback information. We systematically investigated univariate and multivariate feedback encoding in various mPFC regions and compared three modes of neural coding: absolute, partially-adaptive and fully-adaptive. Twenty-eight human participants (both sexes) performed a learning task while undergoing fMRI scanning. On each trial, they chose between two symbols associated with a certain outcome. Then, the decision outcome was revealed. Notably, in one-half of the trials participants received partial feedback, whereas in the other half they got complete feedback. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to explore value encoding in different feedback conditions. We found that both obtained and forgone outcomes were encoded in mPFC, but with opposite sign in its ventral and dorsal subdivisions. Moreover, we showed that increasing feedback information induced a switch from absolute to relative coding. Our results suggest that complete feedback information enhances context-dependent outcome encoding.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1492515
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