Nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EVs), consisting of exomers, exosomes and microvesicles/ectosomes, have been extensively investigated in the last 20 years, although their biological role is still something of a mystery. EVs are involved in the transfer of lipids, nucleic acids and proteins from donor to recipient cells or distant organs as well as regulating cell-cell communication and signaling. Thus, EVs are important in intercellular communication and this is not limited to sister cells, but may also mediate the crosstalk between different cell types even over long distances. EVs play crucial functions in both cellular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diseases, and since their contents reflect the status of the donor cell, they represent an additional valuable source of information for characterizing complex biological processes. Recent advances in isolation and analytical methods have led to substantial improvements in both characterizing and engineering EVs, leading to their use either as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis/prognosis or even as novel therapies. Due to their capacity to carry biomolecules, various EV-based therapeutic applications have been devised for several pathological conditions, including eye diseases. In the eye, EVs have been detected in the retina, aqueous humor, vitreous body and also in tears. Experiences with other forms of intraocular drug applications have opened new ways to use EVs in the treatment of retinal diseases. We here provide a comprehensive summary of the main in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo literature-based studies on EVs' role in ocular physiological and pathological conditions. We have focused on age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, which are common eye diseases leading to permanent blindness, if not treated properly. In addition, the putative use of EVs in retinitis pigmentosa and other retinopathies is discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the potential of EVs as therapeutic tools and/or biomarkers in the above-mentioned retinal disorders. Evidence emerging from experimental disease models and human material strongly suggests future diagnostic and/or therapeutic exploitation of these biological agents in various ocular disorders with a good possibility to improve the patient's quality of life.

Extracellular vesicles in degenerative retinal diseases: A new therapeutic paradigm

Manai, Federico;Comincini, Sergio;Amadio, Marialaura
2024-01-01

Abstract

Nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EVs), consisting of exomers, exosomes and microvesicles/ectosomes, have been extensively investigated in the last 20 years, although their biological role is still something of a mystery. EVs are involved in the transfer of lipids, nucleic acids and proteins from donor to recipient cells or distant organs as well as regulating cell-cell communication and signaling. Thus, EVs are important in intercellular communication and this is not limited to sister cells, but may also mediate the crosstalk between different cell types even over long distances. EVs play crucial functions in both cellular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diseases, and since their contents reflect the status of the donor cell, they represent an additional valuable source of information for characterizing complex biological processes. Recent advances in isolation and analytical methods have led to substantial improvements in both characterizing and engineering EVs, leading to their use either as novel biomarkers for disease diagnosis/prognosis or even as novel therapies. Due to their capacity to carry biomolecules, various EV-based therapeutic applications have been devised for several pathological conditions, including eye diseases. In the eye, EVs have been detected in the retina, aqueous humor, vitreous body and also in tears. Experiences with other forms of intraocular drug applications have opened new ways to use EVs in the treatment of retinal diseases. We here provide a comprehensive summary of the main in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo literature-based studies on EVs' role in ocular physiological and pathological conditions. We have focused on age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, which are common eye diseases leading to permanent blindness, if not treated properly. In addition, the putative use of EVs in retinitis pigmentosa and other retinopathies is discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the potential of EVs as therapeutic tools and/or biomarkers in the above-mentioned retinal disorders. Evidence emerging from experimental disease models and human material strongly suggests future diagnostic and/or therapeutic exploitation of these biological agents in various ocular disorders with a good possibility to improve the patient's quality of life.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1494802
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