: Calsequestrin (CASQ) is a key intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-handling protein that plays a pivotal role in the contraction of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Its Ca2+-dependent polymerization dynamics shape the translation of electric excitation signals to the Ca2+-induced contraction of the actin-myosin architecture. Mutations in CASQ are linked to life-threatening pathological conditions, including tubular aggregate myopathy, malignant hyperthermia, and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT). The variability in the penetrance of these phenotypes and the lack of a clear understanding of the disease mechanisms associated with CASQ mutations pose a major challenge to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. In vitro studies have mainly focused on the polymerization and Ca2+-buffering properties of CASQ but have provided little insight into the complex interplay of structural and functional changes that underlie disease. In this review, the biochemical and structural natures of CASQ are explored in-depth, while emphasizing their direct and indirect consequences for muscle Ca2+ physiology. We propose a novel functional classification of CASQ pathological missense mutations based on the structural stability of the monomer, dimer, or linear polymer conformation. We also highlight emerging similarities between polymeric CASQ and polyelectrolyte systems, emphasizing the potential for the use of this paradigm to guide further research.

The Structural–Functional Crosstalk of the Calsequestrin System: Insights and Pathological Implications

Marabelli, Chiara;Priori, Silvia G.
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Calsequestrin (CASQ) is a key intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-handling protein that plays a pivotal role in the contraction of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Its Ca2+-dependent polymerization dynamics shape the translation of electric excitation signals to the Ca2+-induced contraction of the actin-myosin architecture. Mutations in CASQ are linked to life-threatening pathological conditions, including tubular aggregate myopathy, malignant hyperthermia, and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT). The variability in the penetrance of these phenotypes and the lack of a clear understanding of the disease mechanisms associated with CASQ mutations pose a major challenge to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. In vitro studies have mainly focused on the polymerization and Ca2+-buffering properties of CASQ but have provided little insight into the complex interplay of structural and functional changes that underlie disease. In this review, the biochemical and structural natures of CASQ are explored in-depth, while emphasizing their direct and indirect consequences for muscle Ca2+ physiology. We propose a novel functional classification of CASQ pathological missense mutations based on the structural stability of the monomer, dimer, or linear polymer conformation. We also highlight emerging similarities between polymeric CASQ and polyelectrolyte systems, emphasizing the potential for the use of this paradigm to guide further research.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1497418
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