BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death up to age 1. Sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) is similar but affects mostly toddlers aged 1 to 4. SUDC is rarer than SIDS, and although cardiogenetic testing (molecular autopsy) identifies an underlying cause in a fraction of SIDS, less is known about SUDC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-seven SIDS and 16 SUDC cases underwent molecular autopsy with 25 definitive-evidence arrhythmia-associated genes. In 18 cases, another 76 genes with varying degrees of evidence were analyzed. Parents were offered cascade screening. Double-blind review of clinical-genetic data established genotype– phenotype correlations. The yield of likely pathogenic variants in the 25 genes was higher in SUDC than in SIDS (18.8% [3/16] versus 2.6% [2/77], respec-tively; P=0.03), whereas novel/ultra-rare variants of uncertain significance were comparably represented. Rare variants of uncertain significance and likely benign variants were found only in SIDS. In cases with expanded analyses, likely pathogenic/ likely benign variants stemmed only from definitive-evidence genes, whereas all other genes contributed only variants of uncertain significance. Among 24 parents screened, variant status and phenotype largely agreed, and 3 cases positively cor-related for cardiac channelopathies. Genotype– phenotype correlations significantly aided variant adjudication. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic yield is higher in SUDC than in SIDS although, in both, it is contributed only by definitive-evidence genes. SIDS/SUDC cascade family screening facilitates establishment or dismissal of a diagnosis through definitive variant adjudication indicating that anonymity is no longer justifiable. Channelopathies may underlie a relevant fraction of SUDC. Binary classifications of genetic causality (pathogenic versus benign) could not always be adequate.

Cardiac Genetic Investigation of Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death: A Study From Victims to Families

Gentilini D.;Crotti L.;Schwartz P. J.
2023-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death up to age 1. Sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) is similar but affects mostly toddlers aged 1 to 4. SUDC is rarer than SIDS, and although cardiogenetic testing (molecular autopsy) identifies an underlying cause in a fraction of SIDS, less is known about SUDC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-seven SIDS and 16 SUDC cases underwent molecular autopsy with 25 definitive-evidence arrhythmia-associated genes. In 18 cases, another 76 genes with varying degrees of evidence were analyzed. Parents were offered cascade screening. Double-blind review of clinical-genetic data established genotype– phenotype correlations. The yield of likely pathogenic variants in the 25 genes was higher in SUDC than in SIDS (18.8% [3/16] versus 2.6% [2/77], respec-tively; P=0.03), whereas novel/ultra-rare variants of uncertain significance were comparably represented. Rare variants of uncertain significance and likely benign variants were found only in SIDS. In cases with expanded analyses, likely pathogenic/ likely benign variants stemmed only from definitive-evidence genes, whereas all other genes contributed only variants of uncertain significance. Among 24 parents screened, variant status and phenotype largely agreed, and 3 cases positively cor-related for cardiac channelopathies. Genotype– phenotype correlations significantly aided variant adjudication. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic yield is higher in SUDC than in SIDS although, in both, it is contributed only by definitive-evidence genes. SIDS/SUDC cascade family screening facilitates establishment or dismissal of a diagnosis through definitive variant adjudication indicating that anonymity is no longer justifiable. Channelopathies may underlie a relevant fraction of SUDC. Binary classifications of genetic causality (pathogenic versus benign) could not always be adequate.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1498178
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