The cerebellum forms one of the main neuronal circuits of the brain. It is involved in motor control and its dysfunction causes the well known neurological syndrome called ataxia. However, despite decades of research, its mechanisms of function still remain elusive. This faith is peculiar indeed, if one considers the remarkable prediction made in the 1980s that cerebellum was soon going to be understood in principle (Sir J.C. Eccles in Ito, 1984). The fact is that, once scientists moved from anatomy-based models (e.g. the renowned motor learning theory of D. Marr; Marr, 1969) to cellular physiology, the cerebellar circuit became quite hard to understand. Cerebellar neurons have dynamic properties, which are not yet fully resolved and complicate (not to say often conflict with) theoretical predictions (reviewed in D'Angelo et al. 2010)
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