We report on electrophoretic, spectroscopic, and computational studies aimed at clarifying, at atomic resolution, the electrostatics of folded and unfolded bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) with a detailed characterization of the specific aminoacids involved. The procedures we used involved denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, electrophoretic titration curves, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra in the presence of increasing concentrations of urea (up to 8 M), electrostatics computations and low-mode molecular dynamics. Discrepancy between electrophoretic and spectroscopic evidence suggests that changes in mobility induced by urea are not just the result of changes in gyration radius upon unfolding. Electrophoretic titration curves run across a pH range of 3.5-9 in the presence of urea suggest that more than one aminoacid residue may have anomalous pK (a) value in native BLG. Detailed computational studies indicate a shift in pKa of Glu44, Glu89, and Glu114, mainly due to changes in global and local desolvation. For His161, the formation of hydrogen bond(s) could add up to desolvation contributions. However, since His161 is at the C terminus, the end-effect associated to the solvated form strongly influences its pK (a) value with extreme variation between crystal structures on one side and NMR or low-mode molecular dynamics structures on the other. The urea concentration effective in BLG unfolding depends on pH, with higher stability of the protein at lower pH.

Electrostatics of folded and unfolded bovine β-lactoglobulin.

GALLIANO, MONICA;
2011

Abstract

We report on electrophoretic, spectroscopic, and computational studies aimed at clarifying, at atomic resolution, the electrostatics of folded and unfolded bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) with a detailed characterization of the specific aminoacids involved. The procedures we used involved denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, electrophoretic titration curves, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra in the presence of increasing concentrations of urea (up to 8 M), electrostatics computations and low-mode molecular dynamics. Discrepancy between electrophoretic and spectroscopic evidence suggests that changes in mobility induced by urea are not just the result of changes in gyration radius upon unfolding. Electrophoretic titration curves run across a pH range of 3.5-9 in the presence of urea suggest that more than one aminoacid residue may have anomalous pK (a) value in native BLG. Detailed computational studies indicate a shift in pKa of Glu44, Glu89, and Glu114, mainly due to changes in global and local desolvation. For His161, the formation of hydrogen bond(s) could add up to desolvation contributions. However, since His161 is at the C terminus, the end-effect associated to the solvated form strongly influences its pK (a) value with extreme variation between crystal structures on one side and NMR or low-mode molecular dynamics structures on the other. The urea concentration effective in BLG unfolding depends on pH, with higher stability of the protein at lower pH.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11571/342327
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