Abstract A brief review of urine analysis in studies of occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds and gases is provided. Analysis of exhaled breath for volatile compounds does not have a long history in occupational medicine. A number of studies has been undertaken since the 1980s, and the methods are well enough accepted to be put forward as biological equivalents of threshold limit values (TLVs) for some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone; methanol; methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK); tetrahydrofurane; dichloromethane. In the last 20 years many scientific articles have shown that the urinary concentrations of unchanged solvents are correlated with environmental exposure and could be used for biological monitoring.
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