The blend of volatile compounds emitted by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum ) infested with the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae ) has been studied comparatively with undamaged plants and aphids themselves. Aphid-infested plants were significantly more attractive towards Aphidius ervi than undamaged plants and aphids themselves. Oriented response towards host-damaged plant, from which aphids were removed just before running the bioassay, did not differ from that recorded for infested plants. Collection of the volatiles and analysis by gas chromatography revealed only quantitative differences between uninfested and aphid-infested plants. Nine compounds, a-pinene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, a-phellandrene, limonene, (E)-b-ocimene, p-cymene, methyl salicylate, (E)-b-caryophyllene and an unknown compound, were emitted at higher levels from aphid-infested plants than from undamaged control plants, whilst no differences were noted for hexanal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and humulene (a-caryophyllene). Synthetic standards of these compounds were tested in wind tunnel bioassays and all elicited a significant increase in oriented flight and landings on the target by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi. (E)-b-caryophyllene resulted the most attractive towards female wasps. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the volatiles produced by the plant in response to aphid attack derive from both jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways, and are exploited by A. ervi as olfactory cues to locate its hosts.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.