The distribution of vanadium has been studied to evaluate the environmental pollution due to the combustion of fossil fuel and oil refinery processes. Vanadium is a useful marker for the potential release of toxic trace metals from fossil fuels, especially oils, as it is always present in these materials. Concentrations were evaluated in the area near the plant, in atmospheric particulate, meteoric water, soils and groundwaters. Vanadium can be derived from the industrial areas of the oil refinery processes or from domestic heating and automotive traffic. In order to differentiate the contributions of these immissions lead has also been determined and the lead/vanadium ratios have been considered.
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