While it is well known that asthma is characterized by airway remodelling, only few studies have investigated this issue in patients affected by allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of the present study is to investigate functional and structural consequences of long-lasting persistent AR (PER) in a cohort of adolescents. Eighty patients, forty with short-lasting and forty with long-lasting PER were prospectively and consecutively evaluated both clinically and by performing skin prick test, nasal cytology, and rhinomanometry. Eosinophils were significantly higher in patients presenting with long-lasting PER rather than in those with short-lasting PER (P < 0.0001). The degree of inflammation was significantly associated with impaired nasal airflow (rs = -0.81). This study provides evidence that adolescents with long-lasting PER may show a progressive worsening of nasal function depending on the inflammation.
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