Insulin resistance, the major limiting factor for peripheral glucose disposal in skeletal muscles, has an intricate multifactor origin. In particular, altered insulin signaling and multiple postreceptor defects contribute to decreased glucose transport, phosphorylation and oxidation. There is increasing evidence that amino acids (AA) and, in particular, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may play a fundamental role in metabolic regulation and glucose homeostasis. These roles originate from a range of effects including the known relationship between amino acids and glucose/insulin metabolism, the stimulatory effect of signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, the regulation of the antioxidant defense system, and, as recently demonstrated, the stimulatory effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Overall while protein/amino acids intake is a primary substrate for gluconeogenesis, specific amino acids directly or indirectly regulate glucose oxidation through several mechanisms. This complex mix of metabolic outcomes may result in significant improvement of glycemic control in humans with type 2 diabetes.

Amino acid supplements and diabetes

D'ANTONA, GIUSEPPE
2012

Abstract

Insulin resistance, the major limiting factor for peripheral glucose disposal in skeletal muscles, has an intricate multifactor origin. In particular, altered insulin signaling and multiple postreceptor defects contribute to decreased glucose transport, phosphorylation and oxidation. There is increasing evidence that amino acids (AA) and, in particular, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may play a fundamental role in metabolic regulation and glucose homeostasis. These roles originate from a range of effects including the known relationship between amino acids and glucose/insulin metabolism, the stimulatory effect of signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, the regulation of the antioxidant defense system, and, as recently demonstrated, the stimulatory effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Overall while protein/amino acids intake is a primary substrate for gluconeogenesis, specific amino acids directly or indirectly regulate glucose oxidation through several mechanisms. This complex mix of metabolic outcomes may result in significant improvement of glycemic control in humans with type 2 diabetes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/570246
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