The increase in obesity and overweight and the relative metabolic diseases in the last years resulted in rising of different diet plans. One of the oldest methods adopted to reach this aim is the very low calorie diet (VLCD), useful for rapid weight loss, which provides a daily energy intake less than 800 kcal/die. Despite the proven efficacy, the use of these plans is recommen- ded only in selected cases of severe obesity or in presence of comor- bidity. The majority of the newest and most common diet plans pro- vide a calorie restriction as well as a large use of protein as energy source. Proteins require more energy expenditure to be metabolized and promote an early sense of satiety compared to fats and carbohy- drates. Although the efficacy of these high protein dietetic plans in achie- ving weight loss seems to be proven, many questions remain unclear about the metabolic influence, the percentage of drop-out and the real effect on health. Indeed, the greatest detectable limit is the lack of data about the metabolic setting and the compliance on long-term treatments. Interesting results are reported from the researches on the balan- ced hypocaloric diet. Overall, according to the analyzed data, the choice of a dietary plan modeled on the pattern of the Mediterranean Diet (MD), slightly restricted in calories, which drives to weight loss within the appro- priate time, should be preferred.
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