Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs as a result of disuse. Although several studies have established that a decrease in protein synthesis and increase in protein degradation lead to muscle atrophy, little is known about the triggers underlying such processes. A growing body of evidence challenges oxidative stress as a trigger of disuse atrophy; furthermore, it is also becoming evident that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a causative role in determining muscle atrophy. Mitochondrial fusion and fission have emerged as important processes that govern mitochondrial function and PGC-1α may regulate fusion/fission events. Although most studies on mice have focused on the anti-gravitary slow soleus muscle as it is preferentially affected by disuse atrophy, several fast muscles (including gastrocnemius) go through a significant loss of mass following unloading. Here we found that in fast muscles an early down-regulation of pro-fusion proteins, through concomitant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, can activate catabolic systems, and ultimately cause muscle mass loss in disuse. Elevated muscle PGC-1α completely preserves muscle mass by preventing the fall in pro-fusion protein expression, AMPK and catabolic system activation, suggesting that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat and prevent muscle atrophy.

The role of alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and PGC-1α over-expression in fast muscle atrophy following hindlimb unloading

CANNAVINO, JESSICA;BROCCA, LORENZA;BOTTINELLI, ROBERTO;PELLEGRINO, MARIA ANTONIETTA
2015-01-01

Abstract

Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs as a result of disuse. Although several studies have established that a decrease in protein synthesis and increase in protein degradation lead to muscle atrophy, little is known about the triggers underlying such processes. A growing body of evidence challenges oxidative stress as a trigger of disuse atrophy; furthermore, it is also becoming evident that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a causative role in determining muscle atrophy. Mitochondrial fusion and fission have emerged as important processes that govern mitochondrial function and PGC-1α may regulate fusion/fission events. Although most studies on mice have focused on the anti-gravitary slow soleus muscle as it is preferentially affected by disuse atrophy, several fast muscles (including gastrocnemius) go through a significant loss of mass following unloading. Here we found that in fast muscles an early down-regulation of pro-fusion proteins, through concomitant AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, can activate catabolic systems, and ultimately cause muscle mass loss in disuse. Elevated muscle PGC-1α completely preserves muscle mass by preventing the fall in pro-fusion protein expression, AMPK and catabolic system activation, suggesting that compounds inducing PGC-1α expression could be useful to treat and prevent muscle atrophy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1107734
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