Roughly ten years ago the FDA approved most of the presently used anti-VEGF drugs for the treatment of neovascular AMD and other eye pathologies characterized by ocular neoangiogenesis. However, the recent findings on the physiologic activities of VEGF isoforms impose to reconsider the inhibitory effects of pan-VEGF antagonists and the concept that to face pathological alterations at ocular level is possible only through the full block of all VEGF isoforms. In fact, although pan-VEGF agents rapidly and effectively contrast ocular neovascularization, vascular leakage, and other pathological changes, in the long-term the inhibition of all VEGF isoforms likely may result in the loss of the physiologic effects exerted by VEGF121 and the anti-angiogenic VEGF165b. Notably, selective inhibitors of VEGF165a, such as pegaptanib, spare these targets. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that also systemic side effects, secondary to intraocular treatment with non-selective anti-VEGF drugs, may be reinterpreted in light of these recent findings, which may be useful to clinicians for the choice of the most appropriate anti-VEGF agent. Another aspect that should be considered is the involvement of VEGF-independent pathways in ocular neovascularization, therefore a combined therapy can represent a more effective pharmacological approach that might help also to counteract tachyphylaxis, an important issue in anti-VEGF treatment. This complex picture and the recent findings on current anti-VEGF drugs should be therefore taken into account to guide the development of novel agents targeting VEGF and/or other key factors involved in the pathogenesis of neovascular ocular diseases along the signaling pathways stimulated by the various isoforms. Accordingly, this review also reports on novel pharmacological molecules targeting VEGF at ocular level and currently under development, with a special attention to oligonucleotide-based interventions.

Targeting VEGF in eye neovascularization: What's new?: A comprehensive review on current therapies and oligonucleotide-based interventions under development

AMADIO, MARIALAURA
;
GOVONI, STEFANO;PASCALE, ALESSIA ANGELA
2016-01-01

Abstract

Roughly ten years ago the FDA approved most of the presently used anti-VEGF drugs for the treatment of neovascular AMD and other eye pathologies characterized by ocular neoangiogenesis. However, the recent findings on the physiologic activities of VEGF isoforms impose to reconsider the inhibitory effects of pan-VEGF antagonists and the concept that to face pathological alterations at ocular level is possible only through the full block of all VEGF isoforms. In fact, although pan-VEGF agents rapidly and effectively contrast ocular neovascularization, vascular leakage, and other pathological changes, in the long-term the inhibition of all VEGF isoforms likely may result in the loss of the physiologic effects exerted by VEGF121 and the anti-angiogenic VEGF165b. Notably, selective inhibitors of VEGF165a, such as pegaptanib, spare these targets. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that also systemic side effects, secondary to intraocular treatment with non-selective anti-VEGF drugs, may be reinterpreted in light of these recent findings, which may be useful to clinicians for the choice of the most appropriate anti-VEGF agent. Another aspect that should be considered is the involvement of VEGF-independent pathways in ocular neovascularization, therefore a combined therapy can represent a more effective pharmacological approach that might help also to counteract tachyphylaxis, an important issue in anti-VEGF treatment. This complex picture and the recent findings on current anti-VEGF drugs should be therefore taken into account to guide the development of novel agents targeting VEGF and/or other key factors involved in the pathogenesis of neovascular ocular diseases along the signaling pathways stimulated by the various isoforms. Accordingly, this review also reports on novel pharmacological molecules targeting VEGF at ocular level and currently under development, with a special attention to oligonucleotide-based interventions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1163184
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