JAK/STAT transduction pathway is a highly conserved pathway implicated in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Dysregulation of this pathway is involved in the onset of autoimmune, haematological, oncological, metabolic and neurological diseases. Over the last few years, the research of anti-neuroinflammatory agents has gained considerable attention. The ability to diminish the STAT-induced transcription of inflammatory genes is documented for both natural compounds (such as polyphenols) and chemical drugs. Among polyphenols, quercetin and curcumin directly inhibit STAT, while Berberis vulgaris L. and Sophora alopecuroides L extracts act indirectly. Also, the Food and Drug Administration has approved several JAK/STAT inhibitors (direct or indirect) for treating inflammatory diseases, indicating STAT can be considered as a therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory pathologies. Considering the encouraging data obtained so far, clinical trials are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential use in the clinical practice of STAT inhibitors to treat inflammation-associated neurodegenerative pathologies.
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