Computerized cognitive training programs (CCTP) are based on the assumption that cognitive abilities may be boosted by repetitively performing challenging tasks. The integration of game-like features in these programs, associated with the goal of amusing or rewarding participants, may contribute to generate cognitive benefits. Indeed, reinforcement contingencies have been reported to produce positive effects on performance and motivation, especially in children. This meta-analysis was aimed at providing a quantitative summary of the effectiveness of CCTP with game-like features in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. A total of 24 studies, with the cognitive and behavioral outcome data of 1547 participants, were selected for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify the sources of the observed methodological heterogeneity. A robust variance estimation model, after removal of study outliers, yielded a small-to-moderate significant effect size. Final results pointed out smaller but more precise estimate effect sizes according to methodological aspects related to cognitive domain of outcomes, standardization of measures and type of control applied. Alongside supporting the use of CCTP for rehabilitating cognitive functions, the present results shed light on how different methodological choices are able to shape research findings in the field of children’s cognitive rehabilitation.
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