Three‐dimensional printing of poly(ε‐caprolactone) (PCL) is a consolidated scaffold manufacturing technique for bone regenerative medicine. Simultaneously, the mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) secretome is osteoinductive, promoting scaffold colonization by cells, proliferation, and differentiation. The present paper combines 3D‐printed PCL scaffolds with lyosecretome, a freeze‐dried formulation of MSC secretome, containing proteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs). We designed a lyosecretome 3D‐printed scaffold by two loading strategies: (i) MSC secretome adsorption on 3D‐printed scaffold and (ii) coprinting of PCL with an alginate‐based hydrogel containing MSC secretome (at two alginate concentrations, i.e., 6% or 10% w/v). A fast release of proteins and EVs (a burst of 75% after 30 min) was observed from scaffolds obtained by absorption loading, while coprinting of PCL and hydrogel, encapsulating lyosecretome, allowed a homogeneous loading of protein and EVs and a controlled slow release. For both loading modes, protein and EV release was governed by diffusion as revealed by the kinetic release study. The secretome’s diffusion is influenced by alginate, its concentration, or its cross‐linking modes with protamine due to the higher steric hindrance of the polymer chains. Moreover, it is possible to further slow down protein and EV release by changing the scaffold shape from parallelepiped to cylindrical. In conclusion, it is possible to control the release kinetics of proteins and EVs by changing the composition of the alginate hydrogel, the scaffold’s shape, and hydrogel cross‐linking. Such scaffold prototypes for bone regenerative medicine are now available for further testing of safety and efficacy.

3D Bioprinted Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Lyosecretome: Next Generation Controlled Release Device for Bone Regenerative Medicine

Elia Bari;Franca Scocozza;Sara Perteghella;Ferdinando Auricchio;Maria Luisa Torre;Michele Conti
2021

Abstract

Three‐dimensional printing of poly(ε‐caprolactone) (PCL) is a consolidated scaffold manufacturing technique for bone regenerative medicine. Simultaneously, the mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) secretome is osteoinductive, promoting scaffold colonization by cells, proliferation, and differentiation. The present paper combines 3D‐printed PCL scaffolds with lyosecretome, a freeze‐dried formulation of MSC secretome, containing proteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs). We designed a lyosecretome 3D‐printed scaffold by two loading strategies: (i) MSC secretome adsorption on 3D‐printed scaffold and (ii) coprinting of PCL with an alginate‐based hydrogel containing MSC secretome (at two alginate concentrations, i.e., 6% or 10% w/v). A fast release of proteins and EVs (a burst of 75% after 30 min) was observed from scaffolds obtained by absorption loading, while coprinting of PCL and hydrogel, encapsulating lyosecretome, allowed a homogeneous loading of protein and EVs and a controlled slow release. For both loading modes, protein and EV release was governed by diffusion as revealed by the kinetic release study. The secretome’s diffusion is influenced by alginate, its concentration, or its cross‐linking modes with protamine due to the higher steric hindrance of the polymer chains. Moreover, it is possible to further slow down protein and EV release by changing the scaffold shape from parallelepiped to cylindrical. In conclusion, it is possible to control the release kinetics of proteins and EVs by changing the composition of the alginate hydrogel, the scaffold’s shape, and hydrogel cross‐linking. Such scaffold prototypes for bone regenerative medicine are now available for further testing of safety and efficacy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11571/1429354
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