A large set of FoxOs‐dependent genes play a primary role in controlling muscle mass during hindlimb unloading. Mitochondrial dysfunction can modulate such a process. We hypothe-sized that endurance exercise before disuse can protect against disuse‐induced muscle atrophy by enhancing peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ coactivator‐1α (PGC1α) expression and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and energy‐sensing AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. We studied cross sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers of gastrocnemius muscle by his-tochemistry following 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). We used Western blotting and qRT‐PCR to study mitochondrial dynamics and FoxOs‐dependent atrogenes’ expression at 1 and 3 days after HU. Preconditioned animals were submitted to moderate treadmill exercise for 7 days before disuse. Exercise preconditioning protected the gastrocnemius from disuse atrophy until 7 days of HU. It blunted alterations in mitochondrial dynamics up to 3 days after HU and the expression of most atrogenes at 1 day after disuse. In preconditioned mice, the activation of atrogenes resumed 3 days after HU when mitochondrial dynamics, assessed by profusion and pro‐fission markers (mitofusin 1, MFN1, mitofusin 2, MFN2, optic atrophy 1, OPA1, dynamin related protein 1, DRP1 and fission 1, FIS1), PGC1α levels, and AMPK activation were at a basal level. Therefore, the normalization of mitochondrial dynamics and function was not sufficient to prevent atrogenes activation just a few days after HU. The time course of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression and content paralleled the time course of atrogenes’ expression. In conclusion, seven days of endurance exercise counteracted alterations of mitochondrial dynamics and the activation of atrogenes early into dis-use. Despite the normalization of mitochondrial dynamics, the effect on atrogenes’ suppression died away within 3 days of HU. Interestingly, muscle protection lasted until 7 days of HU. A longer or more intense exercise preconditioning may prolong atrogenes suppression and muscle protection.

Exercise preconditioning blunts early atrogenes expression and atrophy in gastrocnemius muscle of hindlimb unloaded mice

Brocca L.;Rossi M.;Canepari M.;Bottinelli R.;Pellegrino M. A.
2021

Abstract

A large set of FoxOs‐dependent genes play a primary role in controlling muscle mass during hindlimb unloading. Mitochondrial dysfunction can modulate such a process. We hypothe-sized that endurance exercise before disuse can protect against disuse‐induced muscle atrophy by enhancing peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ coactivator‐1α (PGC1α) expression and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and energy‐sensing AMP‐activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. We studied cross sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers of gastrocnemius muscle by his-tochemistry following 1, 3, 7, and 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). We used Western blotting and qRT‐PCR to study mitochondrial dynamics and FoxOs‐dependent atrogenes’ expression at 1 and 3 days after HU. Preconditioned animals were submitted to moderate treadmill exercise for 7 days before disuse. Exercise preconditioning protected the gastrocnemius from disuse atrophy until 7 days of HU. It blunted alterations in mitochondrial dynamics up to 3 days after HU and the expression of most atrogenes at 1 day after disuse. In preconditioned mice, the activation of atrogenes resumed 3 days after HU when mitochondrial dynamics, assessed by profusion and pro‐fission markers (mitofusin 1, MFN1, mitofusin 2, MFN2, optic atrophy 1, OPA1, dynamin related protein 1, DRP1 and fission 1, FIS1), PGC1α levels, and AMPK activation were at a basal level. Therefore, the normalization of mitochondrial dynamics and function was not sufficient to prevent atrogenes activation just a few days after HU. The time course of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression and content paralleled the time course of atrogenes’ expression. In conclusion, seven days of endurance exercise counteracted alterations of mitochondrial dynamics and the activation of atrogenes early into dis-use. Despite the normalization of mitochondrial dynamics, the effect on atrogenes’ suppression died away within 3 days of HU. Interestingly, muscle protection lasted until 7 days of HU. A longer or more intense exercise preconditioning may prolong atrogenes suppression and muscle protection.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1447711
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