The neonatal and paediatric spectrum of small bowel disorders encompass a wide variety of conditions, ranging from food allergies to life-threatening surgical emergencies or life-long medical conditions and, as such, it comes with a whole set of diagnostic challenges for the non-paediatric pathologist. Histologic examination is a cornerstone of diagnosis in a large number of diseases and may still provide important diagnostic clues in the appropriate clinical context. In this review, divided in two sections, we aim to provide a comprehensive histopathological summary of paediatric small bowel alteration and their differential diagnoses with a reference to the main clinical aspects required for appropriate interpretation. Specifically, in this first part, we describe congenital and metabolic disorders, intestinal lymphangiectasia, immunodeficiencies, GVHD, and necrotising enterocolitis.
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