Introduction. Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by neutropenia, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, skeletal dysplasia, and an increased risk for leukemic transformation. Biallelic mutations in the SBDS gene have been found in about 90% of patients. The clinical spectrum of SDS in patients is wide, and variability has been noticed between different patients, siblings, and even within the same patient over time. Herein, we present two SDS siblings (UPN42 and UPN43) carrying the same SBDS mutations and showing relevant differences in their phenotypic presentation. Study aim. We attempted to understand whether other germline variants, in addition to SBDS, could explain some of the clinical variability noticed between the siblings. Methods. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms were defined for each patient, and the WES data were analyzed using the eVai and DIVAs platforms. Results. In UPN43, we found and confirmed, using Sanger sequencing, a novel de novo variant (c.10663G > A, p.Gly3555Ser) in the KMT2A gene that is associated with autosomal-dominant Wiedemann-Steiner Syndrome. The variant is classified as pathogenic according to different in silico prediction tools. Interestingly, it was found to be related to some of the HPO terms that describe UPN43. Conclusions. We postulate that the KMT2A variant found in UPN43 has a concomitant and co-occurring clinical effect, in addition to SBDS mutation. This dual molecular effect, supported by in silico prediction, could help to understand some of the clinical variations found among the siblings. In the future, these new data are likely to be useful for personalized medicine and therapy for selected cases.
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