Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a small, minimally proliferating B-cell/plasma-cell clone secreting a patient-unique, aggregation-prone, toxic light chain (LC). The pathogenicity of LCs is encrypted in their sequence, yet molecular determinants of amyloidogenesis are poorly understood. Higher rates of N-glycosylation among clonal kappa LCs from patients with AL amyloidosis compared to other monoclonal gammopathies indicate that this post-translational modification is associated with a higher risk of developing AL amyloidosis. Here, we exploited LC sequence information from previously published amyloidogenic and control clonal LCs and from a series of 220 patients with AL amyloidosis or multiple myeloma followed at our Institutions to define sequence and spatial features of N-glycosylation, combining bioinformatics, biochemical, proteomics, structural and genetic analyses. We found peculiar sequence and spatial pattern of N-glycosylation in amyloidogenic kappa LCs, with most of the N-glycosylation sites laying in the framework region 3, particularly within the E strand, and consisting mainly of the NFT sequon, setting them apart with respect to non-amyloidogenic clonal LCs. Our data further support a potential role of N-glycosylation in determining the pathogenic behavior of a subset of amyloidogenic LCs and may help refine current N-glycosylation-based prognostic assessments for patients with monoclonal gammopathies.
Nevone, Alice;Girelli, Maria;Mangiacavalli, Silvia;Milani, Paolo;Cascino, Pasquale;Speranzini, Valentina;Cartia, Claudio Salvatore;Benvenuti, Pietro;Basset, Marco;Nanci, Martina;Caminito, Serena;Sesta, Melania Antonietta;Rognoni, Paola;Lavatelli, Francesca;Arcaini, Luca;Merlini, Giampaolo;Palladini, Giovanni
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