IgM memory B cells, are a peculiar subset of memory B cells, which probably originates in the spleen and outside germinal centers and provide a rapid line of defence against mucosal infections. Their role in counteracting COVID-19 is still elusive but, recent evidence, mainly boosted by studies on spleen function/involvement in COVID-19, seems to support the notion that this subset of memory B cells could exert a protective role against this virus, along with other coronaviruses, particularly in the acute setting of the infection, as outlined by worst clinical outcomes observed in unvaccinated patients with impaired IgM B memory response and spleen function. Herein we critically summarise the current landscape of studies on IgM memory B cells, focusing on the clinical impact of their depletion, by comparing the COVID-19-related splenic dysfunction with other hypo- and asplenic conditions and by adding recent data on follow-up studies and postulate a mechanistic explanation for their reduced numbers. The early detection of an impaired IgM memory B cell response in patients with COVID-19 may contribute to their improved care through different strategies, such as through tailored vaccine strategies, prompt hospital admission and/or administration of anti-infective treatments, thus resulting in an better prognosis, although at present management algorithms are still unavailable. Moreover, further studies with longer follow-up are needed to assess the evolution of COVID-19-associated/exacerbated immune deficit.

Role of IgM Memory B Cells and Spleen Function in COVID-19

Rossi, Carlo Maria;Lenti, Marco Vincenzo;Merli, Stefania;Di Sabatino, Antonio
2022-01-01

Abstract

IgM memory B cells, are a peculiar subset of memory B cells, which probably originates in the spleen and outside germinal centers and provide a rapid line of defence against mucosal infections. Their role in counteracting COVID-19 is still elusive but, recent evidence, mainly boosted by studies on spleen function/involvement in COVID-19, seems to support the notion that this subset of memory B cells could exert a protective role against this virus, along with other coronaviruses, particularly in the acute setting of the infection, as outlined by worst clinical outcomes observed in unvaccinated patients with impaired IgM B memory response and spleen function. Herein we critically summarise the current landscape of studies on IgM memory B cells, focusing on the clinical impact of their depletion, by comparing the COVID-19-related splenic dysfunction with other hypo- and asplenic conditions and by adding recent data on follow-up studies and postulate a mechanistic explanation for their reduced numbers. The early detection of an impaired IgM memory B cell response in patients with COVID-19 may contribute to their improved care through different strategies, such as through tailored vaccine strategies, prompt hospital admission and/or administration of anti-infective treatments, thus resulting in an better prognosis, although at present management algorithms are still unavailable. Moreover, further studies with longer follow-up are needed to assess the evolution of COVID-19-associated/exacerbated immune deficit.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1468502
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