Background and purpose: Intracranial carotid artery calcifications (ICACs) are a common finding on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) and have been associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, no data are available about the association between ICAC patterns and stroke etiology. We investigated the association between ICAC patterns and etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a single center cohort of patients admitted for ischemic stroke with known etiology. Each carotid artery was evaluated separately on NCCT scans to define the ICAC pattern (intimal, medial, mixed). The association between ICAC patterns and stroke etiology was investigated using logistic regression models adjusting for relevant confounders. Results: A total of 485 patients were included (median age = 78 [interquartile range (IQR) = 70-85] years, 243 [50%] female, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale = 6 [IQR = 3-12]). Frequencies of ICAC patterns were: intimal, n = 96 (20%); medial, n = 273 (56%); mixed, n = 51 (11%), indistinct/absent, n = 65 (13%) patients. Intimal pattern was more frequent in lacunar compared with nonlacunar (33% vs. 16%, p < 0.001) stroke etiology, whereas medial pattern was less frequent in lacunar compared with nonlacunar stroke (36% vs. 62%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, intimal ICAC predominant pattern remained associated with lacunar stroke etiology in two multivariate models (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-3.56; Model 2: aOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.16-3.46). Conclusions: Our study suggests that intimal ICAC pattern is associated with lacunar stroke and may serve as a marker for lacunar stroke etiology, possibly strengthening the relation between endothelial dysfunction and lacunar stroke.

Intracranial carotid artery calcification morphology differs in patients with lacunar and nonlacunar acute ischemic strokes

Mazzacane, Federico;Ferrari, Federica;Pichiecchio, Anna;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and purpose: Intracranial carotid artery calcifications (ICACs) are a common finding on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) and have been associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, no data are available about the association between ICAC patterns and stroke etiology. We investigated the association between ICAC patterns and etiological subtypes of ischemic stroke. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a single center cohort of patients admitted for ischemic stroke with known etiology. Each carotid artery was evaluated separately on NCCT scans to define the ICAC pattern (intimal, medial, mixed). The association between ICAC patterns and stroke etiology was investigated using logistic regression models adjusting for relevant confounders. Results: A total of 485 patients were included (median age = 78 [interquartile range (IQR) = 70-85] years, 243 [50%] female, median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale = 6 [IQR = 3-12]). Frequencies of ICAC patterns were: intimal, n = 96 (20%); medial, n = 273 (56%); mixed, n = 51 (11%), indistinct/absent, n = 65 (13%) patients. Intimal pattern was more frequent in lacunar compared with nonlacunar (33% vs. 16%, p < 0.001) stroke etiology, whereas medial pattern was less frequent in lacunar compared with nonlacunar stroke (36% vs. 62%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, intimal ICAC predominant pattern remained associated with lacunar stroke etiology in two multivariate models (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-3.56; Model 2: aOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.16-3.46). Conclusions: Our study suggests that intimal ICAC pattern is associated with lacunar stroke and may serve as a marker for lacunar stroke etiology, possibly strengthening the relation between endothelial dysfunction and lacunar stroke.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1471202
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