This paper presents a procedure for the multi-objective design of looped water distribution systems. The main block of the procedure encompasses four sub-algorithms. Since one sub-algorithm co-ordinates the others (which then operate in a subordinate way), the procedure can be inserted into the category of low level hybrid procedures. The results of the algorithm are optimal solutions in the cost-reliability space, with reliability being compactly expressed through the network resilience metric. The application to four case studies shows the benefits of the new algorithm in terms of numerical and computational efficiency with respect to a multi-objective genetic algorithm. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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