Molecular chaperones, a family of proteins of which Hsp90 and Hsp70 are integral members, form an essential machinery to maintain healthy proteomes by controlling the folding and activation of a plethora of substrate client proteins. This is achieved through cycles in which Hsp90 and Hsp70, regulated by task-specific co-chaperones, process ATP and become part of a complex network that undergoes extensive compositional and conformational variations. Despite impressive advances in structural knowledge, the mechanisms that regulate the dynamics of functional assemblies, their response to nucleotides, and their relevance for client remodelling are still elusive. Here, we focus on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR):Hsp90:Hsp70:co-chaperone Hop client-loading and the GR:Hsp90: co-chaperone p23 client-maturation complexes, key assemblies in the folding cycle of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a client strictly dependent upon Hsp90/Hsp70 for activity. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, we unveil with unprecedented detail the mechanisms that underpin function in these chaperone machineries. Specifically, we dissect the processes by which the nucleotide-encoded message is relayed to the client and how the distinct partners of the assemblies cooperate to (pre)organize partially-folded GR during Loading and Maturation. We show how different ligand-states determine distinct dynamic profiles for the functional interfaces defining the interactions in the complexes and modulate their overall flexibility to facilitate progress along the chaperone-cycle. Finally, we also show that the GR regions engaged by the chaperone-machinery display peculiar energetic signatures in the folded state, which enhance the probability of partial unfolding fluctuations. From these results, we propose a model where a dynamic cross-talk emerges between the chaperone dynamics states and remodelling of client-interacting regions. This factor, coupled to the highly dynamic nature of the assemblies and the conformational heterogeneity of their interactions, provide the basis to regulating the functions of distinct assemblies during the chaperoning cycle.

Molecular Mechanisms of Chaperone Directed Protein Folding: Insights from Atomistic Simulations

Castelli, Matteo;Magni, Andrea;Bonollo, Giorgio;Serapian, Stefano A;Colombo, Giorgio
2023-01-01

Abstract

Molecular chaperones, a family of proteins of which Hsp90 and Hsp70 are integral members, form an essential machinery to maintain healthy proteomes by controlling the folding and activation of a plethora of substrate client proteins. This is achieved through cycles in which Hsp90 and Hsp70, regulated by task-specific co-chaperones, process ATP and become part of a complex network that undergoes extensive compositional and conformational variations. Despite impressive advances in structural knowledge, the mechanisms that regulate the dynamics of functional assemblies, their response to nucleotides, and their relevance for client remodelling are still elusive. Here, we focus on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR):Hsp90:Hsp70:co-chaperone Hop client-loading and the GR:Hsp90: co-chaperone p23 client-maturation complexes, key assemblies in the folding cycle of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a client strictly dependent upon Hsp90/Hsp70 for activity. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulation approaches, we unveil with unprecedented detail the mechanisms that underpin function in these chaperone machineries. Specifically, we dissect the processes by which the nucleotide-encoded message is relayed to the client and how the distinct partners of the assemblies cooperate to (pre)organize partially-folded GR during Loading and Maturation. We show how different ligand-states determine distinct dynamic profiles for the functional interfaces defining the interactions in the complexes and modulate their overall flexibility to facilitate progress along the chaperone-cycle. Finally, we also show that the GR regions engaged by the chaperone-machinery display peculiar energetic signatures in the folded state, which enhance the probability of partial unfolding fluctuations. From these results, we propose a model where a dynamic cross-talk emerges between the chaperone dynamics states and remodelling of client-interacting regions. This factor, coupled to the highly dynamic nature of the assemblies and the conformational heterogeneity of their interactions, provide the basis to regulating the functions of distinct assemblies during the chaperoning cycle.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1488256
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