Celiac disease (CD) is a condition with a well-known familiar predisposition and a pooled prevalence among ﬁrst-degree relatives (FDR) of 16%.1 Since the ﬁrst papers focusing on this issue were published more than 15 years ago,2 it is understandable that in the last few years the problem of what to do with those FDR found to be not aﬀected by CD at ﬁrst testing has been emerging. Are they more likely to develop CD than the general population? Are they supposed to be followed up on a regular basis? This problem is so strongly felt that FDR follow-up strategies have already been proposed in the last few years.3,4
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