A wide range of cold environments exist, with an equally broad variety of fungi and yeasts that have adapted to such environments. These adaptations, which affect membranes, enzymes and other cellular components, such as radical scavenging molecules, display a great potential for exploitation in biotechnology. Alterations have been detected in membrane lipids, with an increase in fatty acid unsaturated bonds that enhance their fluidity. We report new data on the different phospholipid composition in membrane lipids in the same fungal species from both Antarctic and temperate regions. The decrease in temperature causes intracellular oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. We report the results of the first analysis of the non-enzymatic antioxidant response and phenolic compound production by an Antarctic strain of Geomyces pannorum. A survey on yeasts from the cryosphere is reported with a focus on their adaptation to a cold environment. Some studies have shown that the number of macrofungi in glacier forefronts rises as deglaciation increases. The survival success of many plants in such areas may be attributed to their mycorrhizal associations. We highlighted the macrofungal biodiversity of some Italian alpine habitats, in which we Inocybe microfastigiata, Laccaria montana and Lactarius salicis-herbaceae were recorded for the first time in Lombardy (Italy).
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