Purpose:Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal-dominant vascular dysplasia characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. Three causative genes are known: ENG (HHT-1), ACVRL1 (HHT-2), and SMAD4 (mutated in HHT in association with juvenile polyposis). Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common symptom after epistaxis. The stomach and the duodenum are the main gastrointestinal sites of telangiectases. Our aim was to explore gastrointestinal tract of consecutive HHT patients to assess distribution, number, size, and type of telangiectases in relation to genotype.Methods:HHT patients underwent gastroduodenoscopy, video capsule endoscopy, and colonoscopy. Molecular analysis of ENG and ACVRL1 was performed to identify the disease-causing mutation.Results:Twenty-two patients (13 men; mean age: 59 ± 9 years) were analyzed: 7 with HHT-1, 13 with HHT-2, and 2 undefined. Gastrointestinal telangiectases were identified as follows: at gastroduodenoscopy in 86% of HHT-1 patients and in 77% of HHT-2 patients, at video capsule endoscopy in all HHT-1 patients and in 84% of HHT-2 patients, and at colonoscopy in 1 patient for each group. HHT-1 showed multiple telangiectases with a higher prevalence, more relevant in the duodenum.Conclusion:Our data demonstrate extensive involvement of the gastrointestinal tract with a more severe association in HHT-1. Gastroduodenoscopy provides significant information on gastrointestinal involvement, and video capsule endoscopy may be added in selected patients. Colonic polyps/adenomas were identified as occasional findings.
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