: Drug discovery is a lengthy and intricate process, and in its early stage, crucial steps are the selection of the therapeutic target and the identification of novel ligands. Most targets are dysregulated in pathogenic cells; typically, their activation or deactivation leads to the desired effect, while in other cases, interfering with the target-natural binder complex achieves the therapeutic results. Biophysical assays are a suitable strategy for finding new ligands or interferent agents, being able to evaluate ligand-protein interactions and assessing the effect of small molecules (SMols) on macromolecular complexes. This mini-review provides a detailed analysis of widely used biophysical methods, including fluorescence-based approaches, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry, microscale thermophoresis, and NMR spectroscopy. After a brief description of the methodologies, examples of interaction and competition experiments are described, together with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. This mini-review provides an overview of the most relevant biophysical technologies that can help in identifying SMols able not only to bind proteins but also to interfere with macromolecular complexes.

Biophysical Assays for Investigating Modulators of Macromolecular Complexes: An Overview

Garbagnoli, Martina;Linciano, Pasquale;Listro, Roberta;Rossino, Giacomo;Vasile, Francesca;Collina, Simona
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Drug discovery is a lengthy and intricate process, and in its early stage, crucial steps are the selection of the therapeutic target and the identification of novel ligands. Most targets are dysregulated in pathogenic cells; typically, their activation or deactivation leads to the desired effect, while in other cases, interfering with the target-natural binder complex achieves the therapeutic results. Biophysical assays are a suitable strategy for finding new ligands or interferent agents, being able to evaluate ligand-protein interactions and assessing the effect of small molecules (SMols) on macromolecular complexes. This mini-review provides a detailed analysis of widely used biophysical methods, including fluorescence-based approaches, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry, microscale thermophoresis, and NMR spectroscopy. After a brief description of the methodologies, examples of interaction and competition experiments are described, together with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. This mini-review provides an overview of the most relevant biophysical technologies that can help in identifying SMols able not only to bind proteins but also to interfere with macromolecular complexes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1498215
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