Importance: The extent and factors associated with risk of diagnostic delay in pediatric celiac disease (CD) are poorly understood. Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic delay of CD in childhood, and to assess factors associated with this delay. Design, setting, and participants: Multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study (2010-2019) of pediatric (aged 0-18 years) patients with CD from 13 pediatric tertiary referral centers in Italy. Data were analyzed from January to June 2023. Main outcomes and measures: The overall diagnostic delay (ie, the time lapse occurring from the first symptoms or clinical data indicative of CD and the definitive diagnosis), further split into preconsultation and postconsultation diagnostic delay, were described. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models for factors associated with diagnostic delay were fitted. Factors associated with extreme diagnostic delay (ie, 1.5 × 75th percentile) and misdiagnosis were assessed. Results: A total of 3171 patients with CD were included. The mean (SD) age was 6.2 (3.9) years; 2010 patients (63.4%) were female; and 10 patients (0.3%) were Asian, 41 (1.3%) were Northern African, and 3115 (98.3%) were White. The median (IQR) overall diagnostic delay was 5 (2-11) months, and preconsultation and postconsultation diagnostic delay were 2 (0-6) months and 1 (0-3) month, respectively. The median (IQR) extreme overall diagnostic delay (586 cases [18.5%]) was 11 (5-131) months, and the preconsultation and postconsultation delays were 6 (2-120) and 3 (1-131) months, respectively. Patients who had a first diagnosis when aged less than 3 years (650 patients [20.5%]) showed a shorter diagnostic delay, both overall (median [IQR], 4 [1-7] months for patients aged less than 3 years vs 5 [2-12] months for others) and postconsultation (median [IQR], 1 [0-2] month for patients aged less than 3 years vs 2 [0-4] months for others). A shorter delay was registered in male patients, both overall (median [IQR], 4 [1-10] months for male patients vs 5 [2-12] months for female patients) and preconsultation (median [IQR], 1 [0-6] month for male patients vs 2 [0-6] months for female patients). Family history of CD was associated with lower preconsultation delay (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-0.74) and lower overall extreme diagnostic delay (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Neurological symptoms (78 patients [21.5%]; OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78), gastroesophageal reflux (9 patients [28.1%]; OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.42), and failure to thrive (215 patients [22.6%]; OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.31-2.00) showed a more frequent extreme diagnostic delay. A previous misdiagnosis (124 patients [4.0%]) was more frequently associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, osteopenia, and villous atrophy (Marsh 3 classification). Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study of pediatric CD, the diagnostic delay was rather short. Some factors associated with risk for longer diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis emerged, and these should be addressed in future studies.

Diagnostic Delay of Celiac Disease in Childhood

Bianchi, Paola Ilaria;Lenti, Marco Vincenzo;Petrucci, Clarissa;Gambini, Giulia;Aronico, Nicola;Varallo, Matteo;Rossi, Carlo Maria;Siccardo, Francesca;Carraro, Carolina;Latorre, Mario Andrea;Resuli, Semela;Moltisanti, Giusy Cinzia;Abruzzese, Giulia Maria;Saglio, Simone;Canu, Pietro;Ruggeri, Damiano;De Silvestri, Annalisa;Klersy, Catherine;Marseglia, Gian Luigi;Corazza, Gino Roberto;Di Sabatino, Antonio
2024-01-01

Abstract

Importance: The extent and factors associated with risk of diagnostic delay in pediatric celiac disease (CD) are poorly understood. Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic delay of CD in childhood, and to assess factors associated with this delay. Design, setting, and participants: Multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study (2010-2019) of pediatric (aged 0-18 years) patients with CD from 13 pediatric tertiary referral centers in Italy. Data were analyzed from January to June 2023. Main outcomes and measures: The overall diagnostic delay (ie, the time lapse occurring from the first symptoms or clinical data indicative of CD and the definitive diagnosis), further split into preconsultation and postconsultation diagnostic delay, were described. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models for factors associated with diagnostic delay were fitted. Factors associated with extreme diagnostic delay (ie, 1.5 × 75th percentile) and misdiagnosis were assessed. Results: A total of 3171 patients with CD were included. The mean (SD) age was 6.2 (3.9) years; 2010 patients (63.4%) were female; and 10 patients (0.3%) were Asian, 41 (1.3%) were Northern African, and 3115 (98.3%) were White. The median (IQR) overall diagnostic delay was 5 (2-11) months, and preconsultation and postconsultation diagnostic delay were 2 (0-6) months and 1 (0-3) month, respectively. The median (IQR) extreme overall diagnostic delay (586 cases [18.5%]) was 11 (5-131) months, and the preconsultation and postconsultation delays were 6 (2-120) and 3 (1-131) months, respectively. Patients who had a first diagnosis when aged less than 3 years (650 patients [20.5%]) showed a shorter diagnostic delay, both overall (median [IQR], 4 [1-7] months for patients aged less than 3 years vs 5 [2-12] months for others) and postconsultation (median [IQR], 1 [0-2] month for patients aged less than 3 years vs 2 [0-4] months for others). A shorter delay was registered in male patients, both overall (median [IQR], 4 [1-10] months for male patients vs 5 [2-12] months for female patients) and preconsultation (median [IQR], 1 [0-6] month for male patients vs 2 [0-6] months for female patients). Family history of CD was associated with lower preconsultation delay (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.47-0.74) and lower overall extreme diagnostic delay (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Neurological symptoms (78 patients [21.5%]; OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78), gastroesophageal reflux (9 patients [28.1%]; OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.42), and failure to thrive (215 patients [22.6%]; OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.31-2.00) showed a more frequent extreme diagnostic delay. A previous misdiagnosis (124 patients [4.0%]) was more frequently associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, osteopenia, and villous atrophy (Marsh 3 classification). Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study of pediatric CD, the diagnostic delay was rather short. Some factors associated with risk for longer diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis emerged, and these should be addressed in future studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1497315
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