: The current genetic diagnostic workup of congenital cataract (CC) is mainly based on NGS panels, whereas exome sequencing (ES) has occasionally been employed. In this multicentre study, we investigated by ES the detection yield, mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in a CC cohort recruited between 2020 and mid-2022. The cohort consisted of 67 affected individuals from 51 unrelated families and included both non-syndromic (75%) and syndromic (25%) phenotypes, with extra-CC ocular/visual features present in both groups (48% and 76%, respectively). The functional effect of variants was predicted by 3D modelling and hydropathy properties changes. Variant clustering was used for the in-depth assessment of genotype-phenotype correlations. A diagnostic (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) variant was identified in 19 out of 51 probands/families (~37%). In a further 14 probands/families a candidate variant was identified: in 12 families a VUS was detected, of which 9 were considered plausibly pathogenic (i.e., 4 or 5 points according to ACMG criteria), while in 2 probands ES identified a single variant in an autosomal recessive gene associated with CC. Eighteen probands/families, manifesting primarily non-syndromic CC (15/18, 83%), remained unsolved. The identified variants (8 P, 12 LP, 10 VUS-PP, and 5 VUS), half of which were unreported in the literature, affected five functional categories of genes involved in transcription/splicing, lens formation/homeostasis (i.e., crystallin genes), membrane signalling, cell-cell interaction, and immune response. A phenotype-specific variant clustering was observed in four genes (KIF1A, MAF, PAX6, SPTAN1), whereas variable expressivity and potential phenotypic expansion in two (BCOR, NHS) and five genes (CWC27, KIF1A, IFIH1, PAX6, SPTAN1), respectively. Finally, ES allowed to detect variants in six genes not commonly included in commercial CC panels. These findings broaden the genotype-phenotype correlations in one of the largest CC cohorts tested by ES, providing novel insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and emphasising the power of ES as first-tier test.

Novel molecular, structural and clinical findings in an Italian cohort of congenital cataract

Lecca, Mauro;Morelli, Federica;Nicotra, Roberta;Sirchia, Fabio;Valente, Enza Maria;Signorini, Sabrina;Errichiello, Edoardo
2024-01-01

Abstract

: The current genetic diagnostic workup of congenital cataract (CC) is mainly based on NGS panels, whereas exome sequencing (ES) has occasionally been employed. In this multicentre study, we investigated by ES the detection yield, mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in a CC cohort recruited between 2020 and mid-2022. The cohort consisted of 67 affected individuals from 51 unrelated families and included both non-syndromic (75%) and syndromic (25%) phenotypes, with extra-CC ocular/visual features present in both groups (48% and 76%, respectively). The functional effect of variants was predicted by 3D modelling and hydropathy properties changes. Variant clustering was used for the in-depth assessment of genotype-phenotype correlations. A diagnostic (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) variant was identified in 19 out of 51 probands/families (~37%). In a further 14 probands/families a candidate variant was identified: in 12 families a VUS was detected, of which 9 were considered plausibly pathogenic (i.e., 4 or 5 points according to ACMG criteria), while in 2 probands ES identified a single variant in an autosomal recessive gene associated with CC. Eighteen probands/families, manifesting primarily non-syndromic CC (15/18, 83%), remained unsolved. The identified variants (8 P, 12 LP, 10 VUS-PP, and 5 VUS), half of which were unreported in the literature, affected five functional categories of genes involved in transcription/splicing, lens formation/homeostasis (i.e., crystallin genes), membrane signalling, cell-cell interaction, and immune response. A phenotype-specific variant clustering was observed in four genes (KIF1A, MAF, PAX6, SPTAN1), whereas variable expressivity and potential phenotypic expansion in two (BCOR, NHS) and five genes (CWC27, KIF1A, IFIH1, PAX6, SPTAN1), respectively. Finally, ES allowed to detect variants in six genes not commonly included in commercial CC panels. These findings broaden the genotype-phenotype correlations in one of the largest CC cohorts tested by ES, providing novel insights into the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and emphasising the power of ES as first-tier test.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11571/1498716
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact